Hoax Letters: These are fake emails sending warnings about malware, virus and worms causing harm to the computers.
Chain letters: Asking people to forward emails or messages for money.
Spam Messages: These are unwanted irrelevant emails trying to gather information about users.
Instant Chat messengers: Gathering personal information from a single user by chatting with them.
Phishing: Creating a cloned fake website trying to gather sensitive information about users. It can be done by sending a fake email as though coming from an original website and then trying to collect confidential information.
Phishing can also be executed through fake mobile applications.
SMS based: Sending a fake SMS saying that the user has won a bounty, urging him/her to register with confidential information or try and collect other important details.
Through Malicious Apps: Applications downloaded from third party sources may be malicious; they can access authentication information and other sensitive details.
Through Email and messengers: Attackers can send spam emails or malicious links through messenger applications. When the victim clicks on it- he may be redirected to a malicious site, or a malware could be downloaded or it may lead to some other malicious activity.
Find an insider: It can be a disgruntled employee who may be the target.
Develop relationship: Develop a friendship with this person and maintain this relationship to the point he trusts you.
Exploit the relationship: Extract the information about the company and other sensitive information exploiting the trust that he placed in you.
An insider attack is very difficult to detect. If a disgruntled employee wants to take revenge; he can install malicious applications to steal/modify information, causing significant damage to the organization or he can be bribed by the competitor to reveal or steal company secrets, intellectual property information, etc.
Educating the employees about the security policies and frameworks, best practices, etc.
Creating awareness among the users and employees about social engineering attacks.
Enforcing strict perimeter policy, authentication mechanisms.
Coming up with effective security policies.
Enforcing proper access privileges.
Classifying information and protecting access to them.
Using Updated antivirus, anti-phishing tools.
Monitoring and auditing.