Surveys can establish a communication process serving as a tool for overall improvement. Information should be gathered on improvement efforts and some of the following factors:
State of the company: What is the employees perception of the company?
State of quality efforts: Are the quality efforts worthwhile?
State of the processes: Are there improvements?
Reaction to policies: What dumb things have been implemented?
Rating of job satisfaction: Do l like my job, my boss, etc.?
Rating of company satisfaction: Is the company a good place to work?
Voice of the External Customer:
The voice of the customer is an expression for listening to the external customer. It is necessary to have constant contact with the customer. To some companies, complaints are the only way that they listen to their customers. It has been stated that complaints are gold because complaints let the company know how to improve, and how to beat the competition. Among the ways that a company can listen to the external customer are:
Immediate customer surveys
Customer follow-up surveys ( months, year, and years)
Community Surveys: A look at what the community is doing.
Personal Customer Contact: CEO spends one day per month with a customer Customer contact reports given to the contract employee.
Focus Groups: Small and large groups Customer interviews or councils, Electronic mail.
Test Marketing: A small area is tested for use.
Quality Guarantees: If not satisﬁed, we will redo the training.
Inspectors: The use of mystery shoppers or auditors.
Ombudsmen: Advocates for the customer.
The suggested measurements are:
Reliability of delivery
After sales support
The secondary or consequential metrics would be derived from the primary metrics. For example, if cycle time was determined to be a key metric, the next step would be to establish the numerical measurement.
Examples of measurements include:
Defects per unit (DPU)
Defects per million opportunities (DPMO)
The average age of receivables
Lines of error-free software code
Reduction in scrap.
Collecting Customer Data:
Collecting data to gain “the voice of the customer” is a multi-level task. When collecting data from customers, it helps to consider the levels where customers impact the business.
Customers at this level are primarily shareholders and top management employees. The data of interest is primarily financial data such as stock price, market share, revenues, earnings,return-on-investment (ROI), return-on-net assets (RONA), etc. Typical measurement intervals may be quarterly or annually.
Customers at this level are primarily those who purchase the product (external) and those who manage production operations “(internal). Data of interest measures overall process performance with the focus on customer satisfaction (external measures of operational effectiveness), and internal operations efficiency (internal measures such as rolled throughput yield, sigma levels, WIP inventory, etc.). Typical analysis tools come from six ‘sigma methods and lean manufacturing, industrial engineering, and various forms of operations analysis. Typical measurement intervals may be daily or weekly.
Customers at this level are primarily internal, including employees and the “next process” in the operation. External customers include suppliers for detailed material specification questions. Data of interest primarily involves key process variables. Typical analysis tools are statistical methods for process control, capability, and improvement. The typical measurement may vary from hours to fractions of a second, depending on production rates. Since employees are customers, they should be surveyed on a regular basis. Employee satisfaction is a key to greater productivity and quality.