A project manager needs to use multiple leadership approaches throughout the life cycle of a project. The term is called situational leadership. It refers to using different leadership styles, based on the people and project work he or she is dealing with.
The leadership and management styles include:
Directing: This style involves telling others what to do
Facilitating: When facilitating, project manager coordinates inputs of others
Coaching: In coaching, the manager helps others achieve their goals
Supporting: A supporting leadership style means the project manager provides assistance along the way
Autocratic: This is a top-down approach. Here, the manager has the power to do whatever he or she wants.
Consultative: This is a bottom-up approach. It uses influence to achieve results. The manager obtains others opinions and acts as the servant for the team.
Consultative-Autocratic: In this style, the manager solicits input from team members, but retains the decision-making authority for him or herself
Consensus: This style involves problem solving in a group, and making decisions based on group agreement
Delegating: With a delegating style, the manager establishes goals and then gives the project team sufficient authority to complete the work
Bureaucratic: This style focuses on following procedures exactly
Charismatic: Charismatic managers energize and encourage their team in performing project work
Democratic or participative: This style involves encouraging team participation in the decision-making process
Laissez-faire: The French term laissez-faire has been translated as meaning allow to act, allow to do, or leave alone. A laissez-faire manager is not directly involved in the work of the team, but manages and consults as necessary. This style can be appropriate with a highly skilled team.
Analytical: This style depends on the managers own technical knowledge and ability. Analytical managers often make the technical decisions for the project, which they communicate to their teams.
Driver: A manager with a driver style is constantly giving directions. His or her competitive attitude drives the team to win.
Influencing: The style emphasizes teamwork, team building, and team decision making. These managers work with their teams to influence project implementation.